X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provides chemical information and can be exploited with either soft (SXPS) or hard X-rays (HAXPES) to vary the surface/bulk sensitivity. With HAXPES, the X-rays used to probe the sample have high energies and thus can penetrate deeper into a system resulting in electrons being kicked out with high kinetic energy. If typical surfaces emitted electrons with 30-100 eV of kinetic energy, HAXPES looks at energies of 5-6 keV, therefore it can examine the 5-10 nm of the outermost layers of the sample.
HAXPES is used to investigate buried interfaces; bulk properties and observing how the sample changes as you go deeper beneath the surface.
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