Surface X-ray Diffraction is a powerful technique that allows the arrangement of atoms at the surface of a sample to be determined. Hard X-rays (typically 15keV) allow interfaces to be studied under a range of conditions, including under liquids, high gas pressures or buried solid-solid interfaces. A grazing incidence geometry provides surface sensitivity and a number of different measurements can reveal the layer structure, detailed atomic surface structure or the shape and size of nanoparticles on the sample. Surfaces are how materials interact with each other; they are critical in a huge number of disciplines including catalysis, battery development, lubrication and electronics amongst others. The surface structure has a critical influence on the properties.
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