Anna Warren


Anna Warren is a Senior Beamline Scientist on VMXm.  She joined Diamond in 2010 on I19, before moving to I24 as a Postdoctoral Research Associate in 2012.  She joined VMXm in May 2015.

Tel: +44 (0) 1235 567455

Key Research Area

  • Methods development
  • Beamline instrumentation
  • X-ray microtomography

Latest publiations

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Current Research Interests

Macromolecular crystallography is moving towards even more challenging target proteins which often crystallise on much smaller scales and are frequently mounted in opaque or highly refractive materials. It is therefore essential that X-ray beamline technology develops in parallel to accommodate such difficult samples.  I am involved in developing projects into the investigation of <10 micron crystals for the study on VMXm.  These advancements include novel mouting procedures for such small crystals, as well developments into the visualisation of very small crystals.



  • A. D. Crawshaw, E. V. Beale, A. J. Warren, A. Stallwood, G. Duller, J. Trincao and G. Evans. A sample preparation pipeline for microcrystals at the VMXm beamline. J. Vis. Exp. (2021). 172, e62306.
  • E. V. Beale, A. J. Warren, J. Trincao, J. Beilsten-Edmands, A. D. Crawshaw, G. Sutton, D. Stuart and G. Evans. Scanning electron microscopy as a method for sample visualization in protein X-ray crystallography. IUCrJ (2020). 7, 500-508.
  • A. J. Warren, D. Axford and R. L. Owen. Direct measurement of X-ray induced heating of microcrystals. J. Synchrotron Rad. (2019). 26, 991-997
  • A. J. Warren, D. Axford, N. G. Paterson and R. L. Owen. Exploiting microbeams for membrane protein structure determination. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (2016). 922, 105-117.
  • A. J. Warren, A. D. Crawshaw, J. Trincao, P. Aller, S. Alcock, I. Nistea and G. Evans. In vacuo X-ray data collection from graphene-wrapped protein crystals. Acta Cryst. (2015). D71, 2079-2088.
  • J. H. Tutt, D. J. Hall, M. R. Soman, A. D. Holland, A. J. Warren, T. Connolley and A. M. Evagora. Development of EM-CCD-based X-ray detector for synchrotron applications. Electron. Lett. (2014). 50(17), 1224-1226
  • J. H. Tutt, D. J. Hall, M. R. Soman, A. D. Holland, A. J. Warren, T. Connolley and A. M. Evagora. Comparison of EM-CCD and scientific CMOS based camera systems for high resolution X-ray imaging and tomography applications.J. Instrum. (2014). 9, P06017
  • M. R. Warren, T. L. Easun, S. K. Brayshaw, R. J. Deeth, M. W. George, A. L. Johnson, S. Schiffers, S. J. Teat, A. J. Warren, J. E. Warren, C. C. Wilson,  C. H. Woodall, and P. R. Raithby. Solid-State Interconversions: Unique 100% Reversible Transformations between the Ground and Metastable States in Single-Crystals of a series of Nickel(II) Nitro Complexes. Chem. Eur. J. (2014). 20, 568-5477
  • M. A. Makhyouna, R. A. Palmer, A. A. Soayeda, H. M. Refaata, D. E. Basher, J. Raftery, C. M. C. Lobley, A. J. Warren, T. Sorensen and M. Ladde. The Ni(II) Complex of 2-Hydroxy-Pyridine-N-Oxide 2-Isothionate: Synthesis, Characterization, Biological Studies, and X-ray Crystal Structures using (1) Cu Kα Data and (2) Synchrotron Data. J. Mater. Sci. Nanotechnol. (2014). 1:301
  • G. Paterno, A. J. Warren, J. Spencer, G. Evans, V. Garcia Sakai, J. Blumberger and F. Cacialli. Micro-focused X-ray diffraction characterization of high quality [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester single crystals without solvent impurities. J. Mater. Chem. C (2013). 1, 5619-5623
  • A. J. Warren,  W. Armour, D. Axford, M. Basham, T. Connolley, D. R. Hall, S. Horrell, K. E. McAuley, V. Mykhaylyk, A. Wagner and G. Evans. Visualization of membrane protein crystals in lipid cubic phase using X-ray imaging.  Acta Cryst. (2013). D69, 1252-1259


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