Diffraction and scattering techniques analyse the patterns produced when a sample is illuminated by X-rays and causes deflections. Diffraction patterns provide the atomic structure of molecules such as powders, small molecules or larger ordered molecules like protein crystals. Diffraction can be used to measure strains in materials under load, by monitoring changes in the spacing of atomic planes (see energy-dispersive diffraction). Scattering experiments are used to determine the molecular structure of non-crystalline materials, including complex biological samples and polymers.

Diamond Beamlines

The following Diamond beamlines are suitable for diffraction and scattering experiments:

I02/I03/I04 - Macromolecular Crystallography
Three diffraction beamlines for interpreting the structure of complex biological samples, such as proteins.

I04.1 - Fixed Wavelength MX station

Side station attached the I04 macromolecular crystallography beamline that will use monochromatic light to investigate the structure of proteins complexes.
I24 - Microfocus Macromolecular Crystallography
A microfocus medium energy beamline for investigating the relationship between the structure of large macromolecules and their function within living organisms.

I07 - Surface and Interface Diffraction

A high-resolution X-ray diffraction beamline for investigating the structure of surfaces and interfaces.
I09 - SISA - Surface and Interface Structural Analysis
Operational in Optimisation Phase


This beamline will combine low energy and high energy beams focused on the same sample area, and will achieve advances in structural determination of surfaces and interfaces, as well as in nano-structures, biological and complex materials research.
I11 - Powder Diffraction
A high resolution powder diffraction beamline for structural crystallography, investigating the structure of complex materials including ceramics, alloys, zeolites and fullerines.
I12 - JEEP
A multi-purpose beamline for researchers and practitioners from engineering and materials science, imaging, process engineering and earth sciences. I12 will use monochromatic diffraction to study crystal structures and phase changes in bulk samples.

I13 - X-ray microscopic imaging with branchline for coherence

A beamline for dynamical studies of condensed systems by X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) and examining the structure of small objects by inversion of oversampled diffraction data.
I15 - Extreme Conditions
A very high energy beamline for single-crystal and powder diffraction. Researchers will use it for studying materials under extreme conditions such as high pressures and temperatures.
I16 - Materials and Magnetism
A beamline for high resolution X-ray scattering and diffraction for studying atomic ordering in electronic and magnetic materials, on surfaces and at interfaces.

B16 - Test beamline

A beamline for testing new developments in optics and detector technology and for trialling new experimental techniques.
I18 - Microfocus Spectroscopy
A beamline providing micron size x-ray beams to enable spatially resolved fluorescence, x-ray absorption and diffraction (transmission only) studies of complex inhomogeneous materials under realistic conditions
I19 - Small Molecule Diffraction
A high-intensity beamline for determining the structure of small molecule crystalline materials, such as new catalysts and 'smart' electronic materials.
I22 - Non Crystalline Diffraction
A non-crystalline diffraction beamline for the physical and life sciences using SAXS and WAXS.

Diamond Light Source

Diamond Light Source is the UK's national synchrotron science facility, located at the Harwell Science and Innovation Campus in Oxfordshire.

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