14 15 D I A M O N D L I G H T S O U R C E A N N U A L R E V I E W 2 0 2 1 / 2 2 D I A M O N D L I G H T S O U R C E A N N U A L R E V I E W 2 0 2 1 / 2 2 Diamond-II update D iamond Light Source has established itself as aworld-class synchrotron facility enabling research by leading academic and industrial groups in physical and life sciences. Diamond has pioneered a model of highly efficient and uncompromised infrastructure offered as a user-focussed service driven by technical and engineering innovation. To continue delivering the world-changing science that Diamond leads and enables, Diamond-II is a co-ordinated programme of development that combines a new machine and new beamlines with a comprehensive series of upgrades to optics, detectors, sample environments, sample delivery capabilities and computing. The user experience will be further enhanced through access to integrated and correlative methods as well as broad application of automation in both instrumentation and analysis. There are several steps to take toward achieving the Diamond-II vision of expanding the UK’s research capabilities. In the first year of preliminary funding, a significant project milestone was passed in November 2021 in securing the Outline Business Case (OBC). Since then, Diamond’s dedicated project teams of engineering and research professionals have shifted the focus to the Technical Design Report (TDR), due for completion later this year. Additionally, the priority flagship beamlines have engaged with their respective user communities and issued Conceptual Design Reports (CDRs) that outline their advanced research capabilities. This comprehensiveprogramme of scientific and technical updateswill push the boundaries of UK research into new territories. Achieving this phenomenal level of change with as little impact on Diamond operations as possible will mean meticulous planning and involvement from staff across all divisions of the organisation. Some of these staff were part of the original Diamond team responsible for the construction of the initial machine more than 20 years ago. In addition to the project management team, the associated phases of the project fall under four distinct work packages: • Machine – to cover every stage of machine upgrade from design, procurement and testing through to removal of old components and assembling and installation of new components. • Beamlines – to include modification of existing beamlines to accommodate the new beam source and building of new flagship beamlines. • Data and Computation – tomanage a new IT infrastructure, including software developments to manage instrumentation, control, acquisition & detector readouts and data analysis for high rate applications. • Infrastructure – to oversee requirements for the additional ~10,000 m 2 of assembly/storage space required for the upgrade (on and off site), upgrade infrastructure systems for the new machine and provide necessary general manpower effort across technical groups. A new generation of lightsources We are entering a new era of opportunity with the advent of fourth generation synchrotrons, the so-called Diffraction Limited Storage Rings (DLSRs). The progress in accelerator technology and the decrease of the electron horizontal emittance between one and two orders of magnitude offers the scientific community the opportunity to exploit much brighter photon beams and an increased coherence over a large energy range. The proposed Diamond-II new machine lattice will be based on Double Triple Bend Achromats (DTBAs). This means an increased brightness and coherence of a factor of up to 70 and provides mid-section straights to retain and enhance all beamlines on bending magnets while offering additional sources for five new beamlines. This design increases the electron beam energy from 3.0 to 3.5 GeV providing greatly increased photon flux at higher energies. To match the extraordinary gains offered by the Diamond-II machine there will be a major renewal and upgrade of existing beamline technologies to meet the new scientific demands. Diamond-II will see enhancements in beam quality and beam stability through new X-ray optics and instrumentation, state-of-the-art sample delivery, and manipulation through the development of optimised sample environments and scientific software solutions that meet the beamline demands for the acquisition, visualisation and analysis of data. This transformational upgrade will take several years of planning, a dark period of 18 months during which there will no light for the user community followed by a period to launch the five flagship beamlines and a comprehensive series of other upgrades, which will bring a total of 38 instruments around the synchrotron ring. Delivery of flagship beamlines for Diamond-II Three newbeamlineswill be available for day one operations 6months after thedark period followingextensive commissioningwith thenewmachine: K04, an ultra-high throughput beamline for MX and XChem; SWIFT, the beamline for fast operando spectroscopy; and CSXID, beamline for Coherent Soft X-ray Imaging and Diffraction. Two other flagship beamlines, BERRIES, beamline for X-ray Raman Scattering and pink-beamX-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES), and the beamline for nano-Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) will be available at a later stage in the Diamond-II programme. K04 beamline The K04 XChem flagship builds on the success and oversubscription of the XChem fragment screening facility, developed in tandemwith the evolution of beamline I04-1. The Diamond-II machine configuration necessitates removing beamline I04-1, providing the opportunity to rebuild it on the new K04 straight, delivering a beamline of vastly increased flux and brilliance, along with extreme automation. The resulting order-of-magnitude increase in throughput will fundamentally shift the scientific scope of crystallographic fragment screening. On the one hand, a far larger range of classes of drug targets will become viable, even when diffraction is weak. On the other hand, routinely large experiments will help achieve the coming revolution in rational drug discovery, by allowing all key interactions and conformations to be observed in 3D up front, providing the raw data that future algorithms will be able to exploit to design clinic-ready drug candidates from scratch. SWIFT beamline This new beamline, called SWIFT (Spectroscopy WithIn Fast Timescales), will be a high flux beamline optimised for the study of samples under operando conditions, and with the added potential to investigate sample heterogeneities at the 20 μm scale. The beamline will exceed the capabilities of the other X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) beamlines at Diamond for experiments that require an element of time resolution in dilute samples, and will bridge the existing spatial resolution gap between beamlines I18 and B18. It is expected that SWIFT will serve a very broad scientific community and that it will also significantly enhance Diamond’s capabilities for industrially relevant X-ray spectroscopy. Thenewsource, amulti-polewiggler,will provideasignificant improvement influx over B18, andwill consequently allowthe investigation of faster processes in more dilute samples (fluorescence detection mode on the millisecond time regime), while keeping the efficiency of the continuous energy scans which have been proven very successful. An additional end-station providing a smaller focal spot is also proposed for the beamline, to allow SWIFT to perform spatially resolved studies of heterogeneous systems. It is anticipated that the scope of this project will also include, from day one, appropriate experimental infrastructure, to support complex environments and experimental conditions. CSXID beamline Today, there is global effort to further understand and control the emergent properties of quantum materials, with the promise of next-generation low- cost, energy-efficient devices. The Coherent Soft X-ray Imaging and Dynamics (CSXID) beamline will be for high-resolution, element selective 3D imaging and dynamic studies of new and novel materials. With an array of leading-edge sample environments and detectors coupled to a high-intensity polarised soft X-ray beamline specifically designed to take full advantage of the large increase in coherent flux from the Diamond-II upgrade, CSXID will revolutionise our ability to explore the static and dynamic 3D nanotexture of quantummaterials. The beamline will facilitate state-of-the-art discovery research and innovation which directly relates to national grand challenges such as the Nanoscale Design of Functional Materials and New Quantum Technologies, as well as research themes in the physical sciences such as Condensed Matter: Electronics Structure, Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Spintronics, Materials for Energy Applications and Energy Storage. These areas are addressed by enhancing nanoscale 3D imaging of the chemical and physical processes critical for the development of dial- up phenomena in complex oxides, low-energy consumption and secure data-storage materials, as well as speeding up the dynamics of topologically protected spin textures. Quadrupole Sextupole Octupole Fast Corrector Permanent Magnet Dipole Gradient Dipole Dipole Insertion Device Insertion Device Insertion Device Diamond-II Cell Layout Existing Diamond Cell Layout New Insertion Device Beamline Bending Magnet Beamline Insertion Device Beamline Insertion Device Beamline Architect’s impression of the Diamond Extension Building (DEB), bottom right, to be constructed as part of the Diamond-II project, and link bridge to the synchrotron. Schematic of the current Diamond DBA (Double Bend Achromat, bottom) and the proposed design for a DTBA (Double Triple Bend Achromat) for Diamond-II (top). The capacities offered by the new KO4 beamline.