Programme | Speaker Abstracts

Speaker Abstracts - Wednesday 4th November 2015

Keynote Presentation

Energy & Mobility: 1 driver, 2 scenarios, 3 signposts
Yann Cramer, General Manager - Innovation & Technology Sourcing, Shell

Shell has unique experience in scenario-building, a practice that explores plausible alternative visions of the future to help test and strengthen our business decisions in the present. Shell has been building and applying scenarios for more than 40 years. The New Lens Scenarios, published in March 2013, explore two possible futures – Mountains and Oceans – in an attempt to recognise and interpret the issues which will shape the energy future. In Mountains, status quo power is locked in and held tightly by the currently influential. Stability is the highest prize: those at the top align their interests to unlock resources steadily and cautiously, not solely dictated by immediate market forces. The resulting rigidity in the system can dampen economic dynamism and stifle social mobility, although the capacity to plan can facilitate some secondary policy developments. In Oceans, influence stretches far and wide in the world. Power is devolved, competing interests are accommodated and compromise is king. Economic productivity surges on a huge wave of reforms, yet social cohesion is sometimes eroded and politics destabilised. This causes much secondary policy development to stagnate, giving immediate market forces greater prominence. Depending on the scenario, radically different technical and societal solutions could emerge, not only for the primary energy mix, but also for energy usage in transport. In addition, as urbanisation emerges as a defining megatrend of the next few decades, the way we – as a society – respond to it will indirectly but markedly influence the energy and transport landscape.


Future engine market and technology trends, light and heavy duty
Dr Penny Atkins, Principal Engineer, Ricardo & Richard Durrant, Global Engineering Manager, Infineum

 Passenger Car (PC) Gasoline & Diesel - Dr Penny Atkins, Principal Engineer, Ricardo Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) - Richard Durrant, Global Engineering Manager, Infineum Innovation in engine technology is driven by a range of market drivers, including legislative requirements, cost of ownership and production costs. We aim to assess what these challenges represent for both for the engine manufacturer (OEM) and their suppliers and consumers. We will also assess these trends across three key geographies, North America, Europe and Asia, draw comparisons and identify probable time lines for their introduction. Within the analysis of these technologies, in conjunction with the market drivers, we will also aim to make predictions as to the types of engine technologies that will be deployed by the global OEM’s in the future.

This is a complex topic and we will split the presentation into two sections, Dr Penny Atkins (Ricardo Consulting) will cover Passenger Car (PC) gasoline and diesel while Richard Durrant (Infineum) will present the trends in Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD).


Diamond Light Source: Overview and how we work with industry
Prof. Andrew Harrison, CEO, Diamond Light Source

The UK’s synchrotron facility, Diamond Light Source, produces X-ray, infra-red and ultraviolet beams of exceptional brightness. The combination of brilliant light and technological platforms is extensively used by the scientific community to undertake structural, chemical and imaging investigations of a broad range of materials on very fast timescales and under industrially relevant conditions. These capabilities are very well suited to a wide variety of automotive research applications ranging from hardware design, fabrication and processing; high performance coatings; fuels, oils and lubricants through to emission control catalysts and batteries. A growing facility, with 25 operational experimental stations and a further six under construction and commissioning, we currently welcome over 8,000 researcher visits every year from academia and from industry. The industrial user programme at Diamond is continuously growing with 90 companies from 12 countries now making use of our facilities through a range of services and collaborations. Case study examples and opportunities for the automotive sector to collaborate and engage with Diamond will be presented.


Soft X-ray Research Applications to the Automotive Industry
Prof. Sven Schroeder, Leeds University

Through the development of sample environments for liquids and near ambient pressure operation soft X-ray core level spectroscopies are emerging as versatile and extremely sensitive probes of local electronic and geometric structure. In this presentation I will outline ideas for future application areas for automotive research by presenting some recent examples that illustrate the possibilities for characterising molecular components in industrially relevant systems. I will start with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which gives insight into subtle molecular interactions in organic matter, complementary to diffraction and solid-state NMR methods. I will then demonstrate how XPS and near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS) measurements can be combined with density functional theory (DFT) to provide reliable modelling of intermolecular bonding in molecular systems with very high precision. NEXAFS in particular emerges as a valuable probe for local structure in non-crystalline systems, such as adsorbed species at surfaces, in ‘amorphous’ matter and in solutions. Combining NEXAFS and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements reveals even more insight into the relationship between chemical bonding and product properties.


Hard X-ray Research Applications to the Automotive Industry
Prof. Peter Lee1*, Chedtha Puncreobutr1, Biao Cai1, Shyamprasad Karagadde1, Lang Yuan2

1School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Oxford Rd., M13 9PL, UK
2GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY, 12309, US

Integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) simulations are now being used by many automotive and aerospace manufacturers to optimise both a component design and it’s manufacturing process. ICME simulations can track the influence of subsequent manufacturing steps upon the final service behaviour of components, allowing significant weight savings and service life extension. However, these models work across the scales from the atomistic level to macroscopic component behaviour, requiring a wide range of material property and validation data. In this paper we will demonstrate how in situ, time resolved, synchrotron x-ray tomography can be used to measure the thermo-physical properties required for ICME simulations of automotive and aerospace components. The in situ experiments also give insight into which physical mechanisms dominate material/component failure, and allow the simulations to be more computationally effective by focussing on these mechanisms. In addition to using 4D synchrotron imaging to inform simulations, methods of validating calculations via quantification of damage growth, semi-solid deformation, and freckle formation will be demonstrated in materials ranging from a light alloy for automotive components to Ni-based superalloys for industrial gas turbines. The results demonstrate that in many cases it is the size distribution of initiating defects, and their potency to initiate failure, that is critical. These phenomena are dependent on both deterministic and stochastic factors, and synchrotron methods for quantify both for model validation will be discussed.


Relevance of Fuel Borne Catalyst additive technology for effective Diesel Particulate Filter regeneration in diesel vehicles
Dr. R. Dallanegra, Infineum

Fuel Borne Catalyst (FBC) additive assisted Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration is a known strategy deployed in modern passenger cars, light duty vehicles and retrofitted in older on and off-road vehicles. Despite DPFs having been present in the market for several years, challenges remain to ensure effective soot oxidation in day to day operation. These include typical city driving cycles where traffic congestion can result in lengthy periods of low exhaust temperatures and markets where emissions legislation is becoming more stringent yet fuel quality continues to vary. The discussion presented will highlight how FBC additive based DPF regeneration strategies can address these current concerns. Furthermore, any DPF regeneration strategy deployed in the field needs to be trouble-free in operation for the lifetime of the vehicle. This contribution will also discuss some of the rigorous harms testing used to develop Infineum FBC Technology to confirm its robustness for long-term efficient DPF regeneration.


Use of Premium Fuels and Lubricants in Current and Future Engines
Dr Richard Pearson, Ben Leach, John Williams and Rana Ali - BP Castrol

 The evolution of the European passenger car fleet is described and the drivers and challenges for future powertrains are discussed. It is shown that lubricants can offer an extremely attractive benefit cost ratio for reducing fuel consumption.

For vehicles using gasoline fuel, engine downsizing is seen to be the most significant technology used by manufacturers to meet CO2 emissions targets. Reducing engine swept volume while increasing specific power output can significantly reduce pumping work and the relative magnitude of friction losses in operating areas commonly encountered in legislative drive cycles. Optimising the engine design for use with a fuel having an increased research octane number (RON) allows the adoption of a higher compression ratio leading to thermodynamic efficiency benefits which reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.

To quantify the benefits of this approach a prototype 1.2l 3-cylinder turbocharged gasoline engine with a maximum BMEP of 30 bar was installed on an engine test bed and its operation optimised across a range of compression ratios and fuel octane numbers. The optimised engine was installed in a VW Passat vehicle and its emission performance was assessed over several legislative and pseudo real world drive cycles. In addition, a vehicle simulation model was used to quantify the impact of compression ratio and fuel octane number on drive cycle exhaust emissions.

It was found that simultaneously increasing the compression ratio from 10.2:1 to 12.2:1 and fuel octane number from 95 RON to 102 RON resulted in efficiency improvements of between 4% and 15% depending on engine operating point. This translated to an approximate 5% improvement in vehicle efficiency when operated over a range of drive cycles.


Start-Stop Operation as Influence Factor on Plain Bearing Lifetime
Florian Summer1, Florian Grün1, Emmanuel Laine2, Martin Offenbecher3

1 Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria
2 Infineum UK Limited
3 Miba Bearing Group, Austria

Plain bearings are designed to transmit high loads and reaction forces with the aid of a load bearing fluid film. However, current trends in engine development push plain bearings to their performance limits. Especially due to novel start stop techniques collapse of the protective lubricant film and direct contact of shaft and bearing material occurs frequently. The current study deals with this new demand in design principles of plain bearings and compares start stop performance of various bearing materials with the aid of a component close test methodology.




Speaker Abstracts - Thursday 5th November 2015

The effect of moisture on engine oil additives
Dr. Alex Routh, University of Cambridge

Calcium carbonate particles are added to engine oil formulations to act as sacrificial sinks for acid. These particles are typically about 5 nm in radius and are colloidally stabilised by surfactants. There are a number of different surfactant head-groups employed. This work investigates two on them: alkyl benzoyl sulphonates and alkyl salicylates. It has been found that water has very different effects on the surfactant stabilised CaCO3 particles. The sulphonate particles remain colloidally stable, whilst the salicylate particles are observed to aggregate and in some cases even gel.

A range of physical chemistry techniques are employed to study these systems. For the sulphonate particles it is found that water hydrates the sulphonate bond in the surfactant, which remains attached to the CaCO3 particle. For the salicylate surfactant, water causes the surfactant to be stripped from the CaCO3 surface and the additives aggregate.


Neutron Scattering from metal/oil surfaces
Dr. Stuart Clarke, University of Cambridge

Recent advances in neutron reflection have enabled the surfaces that can be available for study to now include several metal and metal oxides of industrial importance. This approach (particularly when combined with other methods) can provide a detailed insight into the composition and structure of molecules on engineering surfaces under relevant conditions while still under a liquid (oil and/or water). We present an outline of the approaches used and some indication of the difficulties of this approach that needed to be overcome. Some examples of the information that can be gained will be also be given, as well as interesting early work imposing external fields on the molecular layers such as shear and temperature.


Complementary simulation and experimental studies of structure and dynamics in lubricants
Dr. Philip Camp, University of Edinburgh

Tribology is an area where molecular architecture and large-scale structure are of equal importance. The chemical details of base oils and additives can dictate the performance of a lubricant, while surfaces in sliding contact possess physical features on much larger length scales. The increasing availability and decreasing cost of computing power means that atomically detailed computer simulations can be applied to increasingly large-scale problems. In this presentation, I will summarise recent efforts to simulate and understand, ‘from the atoms up’, the structures and dynamical processes that occur in a lubricant. The examples to be presented will address such phenomena as surface adsorption, flow, and molecular self-assembly, all of which affect the properties of a lubricant. A vital test of any simulation technique is validation against experiment. To this end, I will demonstrate the agreement between molecular-simulation results and measurements from scattering experiments.


High-Pressure Studies of Bio-Diesel
Prof. Colin Pulham, Xiaojiao Liu, Pete Dowding and Iain More - University of Edinburgh

In order to tackle emissions targets for CO2, there is increasing legislative pressure to replace fossil fuels with renewable fuels. Biodiesel is one such renewable transportation fuel. It consists of long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and is generally produced by trans-esterification of vegetable oils and animal fats. Typical components of biodiesel, regardless of their source, are methyl palmitate, methyl stearate, methyl linoleate, and the methyl ester of linolenic acid. Biodiesel has many desirable qualities compared to mineral diesel. These include: low flammability, non-explosive, low toxicity, biodegradable, obtained from renewable sources, high combustion efficiency, and reduced toxic emissions. However, biodiesel also suffers from some disadvantages. In particular, the “cloud point” of biodiesel is around -2˚C, which much higher than that of mineral diesel. The high content of saturated FAMEs in biodiesel and the presence of unreacted products, (e.g. monoglycerides and diglycerides) cause the precipitation of crystallites at low temperatures, which can result in blockages of fuel filters and fuel lines in diesel engines. These issues can, in part, be overcome by the design of fuel filters, thermal management of the fuel systems, and the use of additives that modify the size and morphology of precipitated crystallites thereby making them less prone to block fuel filters. However, there is another issue associated with biodiesel. Modern diesel engines inject fuel into the combustion chamber as an aerosol, which is formed by passage of fuel through very narrow nozzles from a reservoir (common rail) that contains fuel at pressures of up to 4000 bar (0.4 GPa). These high backing pressures ensure that the fuel is injected as a very fine aerosol that aids combustion. These elevated pressures, however, can also cause crystallisation of biofuels in the common rail and high-pressure fuel lines, resulting in blockages of the injector nozzles. This crystallisation is exacerbated by low temperatures, resulting in significant problems of engine failure under cold-start conditions. In order to tackle this problem, a collaborative project has been established with Infineum with the aims of exploring the high-pressure behaviour of biodiesel and contributing to the development of crystal-habit modifiers that are effective for pressure-induced crystallisation of biodiesel. This presentation will describe some of the results obtained during this project, with a focus on the crystallisation of bio-diesel and its crystallisation behaviour at elevated pressures.


Improving sheet steel ductility for automotive fabrication processes
D.M. Collins1, T. Connolley2, R.I. Todd1, A.J. Wilkinson1

1Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PH
2Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science & Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE

The geometric complexity of an automotive component fabricated from a metallic sheet is largely limited by the ductility of the material used. Gains in ductility are possible using so-called non-proportional strain-paths, whereby the material undergoes a prescribed prestrain prior to further plastic deformation but with a different strain ratio. However, since its discovery in the 1950s, a satisfactory explanation of this anomalous effect remains absent. The development of modern characterisation methods are now enabling, for the first time, insight into the deformation mechanisms that govern the macroscopic response. Such techniques are being applied to non-proportional forming methods in this study. High energy synchrotron diffraction has been used, in-situ, at the I12 beamline, Diamond Light Source to observe the deformation of sheet steel along different non-proportional strain-paths. To accurately replicate a real manufacturing process, a bespoke biaxial load frame was designed and built, capable of accessing arbitrary non-proportional strain-paths. Specially designed cruciform specimens were machined from automotive-grade ferritic steel, ensuring the region of interest was appropriate for diffraction in transmission. Tests were performed on specimens subjected to a range of strain-paths and strain-ratios including proportional and non-proportional deformation. The experiment enabled the elastic response of individual lattice planes during deformation to be observed. Furthermore, by collecting the full Debye-Scherrer diffraction geometry using an area detector, temporally resolved lattice strain distributions were obtained with respect to crystal orientation within the plane of the sheet. Changes in the intensity of individual reflections also allowed the evolution of texture to be monitored. Upon a strain-path change, the hardening response and the development of lattice strain distributions were shown to deviate from the observations made during proportional loading. The developing textures were also shown to have strong dependence on the given prestrain. 


Challenges in Battery Technologies and Fuel Cells 
Dr Sarah Ball, Johnson Matthey

Johnson Matthey is a global leader in sustainable technologies with activities across a diverse range of areas in catalysis, nanomaterials and chemicals. This presentation will introduce our activities on Battery Technologies and Fuel Cells, which form part of our New Business Development Division. Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells is a world leader in the production of catalysed components for use in fuel cells. The manufacturing facility in Swindon was opened in 2002 and was the world’s first dedicated production facility for membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), the key component in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. More recently (2012), Johnson Matthey has also entered the Battery Technology area, with businesses in the areas of both Battery Materials and Battery Systems. Sites in Canada, China, Poland, Germany, and the UK are focused on developing advanced technologies and materials to meet the requirements of high performance battery applications, such as for automotive, e-bikes and power tools. There are a number of key challenges are common across both battery and fuel cell technologies, such as improving performance, energy density, lifetime and cost. These will be described in the context of the materials levels challenges they create for high performance electrochemical systems. Examples from past and current collaborations will be used to highlight how advanced characterisation techniques, including X-ray and neutron techniques, as well as in operando studies, can elucidate material properties and provide valuable insight into degradation mechanisms.


High Throughput Development of Novel Alloys
Dr Graeme Purdy, CEO, Ilika

The development of novel alloys has traditionally been a long and expensive process, largely due to the difficulty in making and characterising small, but representative, samples of candidate metals. Ilika has developed a thin-film method for rapidly combining constituent elements to form alloys in structural phases representative of the phases seen for the alloys when prepared using traditional bulk synthesis approaches. Detailed structural analysis using Diamond beam lines provides enhanced insight into phase formation. Of interest to the automotive industry is that the method can be used for developing both lightweight, high strength bulk alloys for structural applications as well as coatings with corrosion resistant or wear-resistant properties. The thin films can be tribologically characterised using nano-indentation techniques.


Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI): From Engine Block to Stumbling Block
Dr Cecile Pera, Senior Engineer, Infineum UK Ltd.
Downsizing engines has been a major trend of gasoline engine technology for the last decade. However, new auto-ignition modes, referred to as super-knock or low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) occur in highly boosted gasoline engines, especially for direct injection engines at low-speed/ high-load conditions. These abnormal combustion events can suddenly and instantaneously lead to severe damage engine making LSPI, today, a strong limitation to further downsizing of gasoline engines. Today, there is still no consensus on the exact mechanisms of LSPI but several hypotheses propose the lubricant and additives to be amongst the key players. In particular, oil additives such as calcium-based detergent have been demonstrated to influence the frequency and the severity of LSPI events. Infineum is developing future formulations to meet OEM requirement on LSPI issue. More than a short review of the literature, this presentation proposes to clarify some questions about LSPI: what is LSPI? What is the difference between super-knock and LSPI? What are the mechanisms involved from the combustion point of view? What has been observed and learned so far about engine design, engine operating conditions and the role of oil and additive package components.
Personal Mobility: An innovative take on vehicle design compatible with urban use 
Robert Mainwaring, Technology Manager - Innovation, Shell

Population growth and increasing prosperity are increasing the demand for personal transport. Conversely, concerns about increasing energy use, dwindling energy sources and environmental impact create a tension which encourages the development of alternative transport archetypes. Several options are already commercially available, including battery electric vehicles, hydrogen fuel cells and advanced forms of internal or plug-in hybrid vehicles. Each of these help attenuate toxic and carbon dioxide emissions – especially for short duration journeys in urban areas.

All of these options have implications for manufacturing cost, profitability and energy infrastructure, each of which need to be surmounted before these vehicle options become material on a global scale. This slow rise to materiality has led us to consider the possibility of a small, fuel efficient, gasoline engine car designed specifically for city use. In collaboration with Gordon Murray Design and Geo Technology SA, we aim to enhance fuel economy performance by reduced weight, enhanced streamlining and a fuel efficient engine operating on very low friction lubricants.

The presentation will outline the design motivations; provide some insight into the emerging design and consider its impact on economy and carbon dioxide emissions through a full life cycle analysis. Importantly it will highlight the value of a collaborative design process in which the interdependency of fluids, driveline and vehicle are fully considered.


Supporting Automotive Manufacturing through the use of Large Scale Facilities
Prof. Richard Dashwood, Academic Director, CTO, Warwick Manufacturing Group

The WMG centre of the High Value Manufacturing Catapult is concerned with translational research focussed on low carbon mobility.  Specifically this involves research into three distinct areas namely: lightweight technologies; energy innovation and autonomous vehicles.  In this presentation the role of large scale facilities in helping to solve some of the challenges associated with manufacturing lightweight structures will be discussed. Two specific examples using neutron diffraction residual stress measurements will be presented.  The first demonstrates how residual stress measurements were used to determine the origin of cosmetic defects produced during the sheet metal forming of aluminium alloy body panels.  The second examines resistance spot welding of ultra high strength steel and how residual stress measurements were used to understand weld quality and the effect of weld parameters. The presentation will conclude by highlighting some of the research challenges facing the automotive industry and suggesting how the large scale facilities can support future developments in lightweight technologies and energy innovation. 


Potential Applications of Electron Microscopy in the Automotive Industry  
Prof. Angus Kirkland, University of Oxford and Science Director, Physical Science Electron Microcopy Facility at Diamond

As part of one of Diamonds Phase 3 Beamlines (I14, a Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe) located in a new building some 175m from the storage ring a new facility for Electron Microscopy is being constructed. This facility will provide National resources for state of the art EM serving both life and Physical Sciences, with the former funded by MRC and the Welcome Trust and the latter by Oxford, Johnson Matthey and Diamond. The physical sciences EM facility will include two 2nd generation aberration corrected (S)TEM instruments with imaging capability at the 50pm level coupled with atomic scale analysis and in-situ capabilities. This talk will highlight the capabilities of modern Transmission Electron Microscopes with particular reference to materials problems relevant to the automotive industry. Highlights will include the characterisation of nanocrystalline Metal and Metal Oxide catalysts and in situ studies of fuel cell components.


Modelling and the Automotive industry 
Lee Hannis, Hartree Centre
Modelling and simulation have been the main stay for innovation in the automotive industry for many years, learn how sensor technologies, autonomy and cognitive computing are setting the stage for a radical change in the way we think about vehicles in the future.