Structural integrity and structural changes in bulk samples can be imaged in a non-destructive way with X-ray transmission radiography. When monochromatic X-rays are used, this results in two-dimensional projections whose contrast represents electron-density differences within the object. For tomography, a set of such projections taken at different orientations can be processed by a computer to reconstruct the three-dimensional density distribution.
The method is of great interest in applied Material Science and Engineering because it allows the study of various features within bulk samples, such as cracks, pores, precipitates, and phases of different compositon. By using specially-constructed sample cells, in-service conditions such as load or temperature can be simulated. The short image acquisition times possible with synchrotron radiation mean that changes in samples over time can be recorded. If the high intensity "white beam" is used, very short exposure times can be used to record dynamic processes.
The partial coherence of the X-ray beam from a synchrotron source can be used in a phase contrast technique to enhance the interfaces between different materials whose X-ray absorption is similar.
Engineering and Material Science Applications
Chemical Engineering Applications
Earth and Environmental Science Applications
Biomedical Imaging Applications
White Beam Topography of Ti Alloys:
RJ Cernik (University of Manchester)
Fig: Preferred orientation hot spots in titanium 6246. Data collected with high resolution camera PCO4000 with camera modules.
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